“Because the Daughters of Zion Are Haughty”

Brant Gardner

Literature: Verse 16 inverts verse 17 and complements 18–23, a passage that verse 24 inverts. The inverted relationship between 16 and 17 is balanced by a parallel inversion between 18–23 and 24. In each the contrast is between women’s current finery (symbolizing the fascination with riches) and Yahweh’s coming judgment which will rectify this excess.

The numerous verses contained in the parallels result from modern editing, not from the original themes. Thus, there is no problem with verses 18–23 matching with the single verse 24. The versification of the Bible began in the Middle Ages, following the system introduced by Robert Stephanus in his edition of the Latin Vulgate issued at Geneva in 1555.

Second Witness: Analytical & Contextual Commentary on the Book of Mormon, Vol. 2