2 Nephi 11:3 Textual Variants

Royal Skousen
and my brother Jacob [also hath 1A|also has BCDEFGHIKLMNOPQRST|has also J] seen him as I have seen him

Here the 1888 LDS large-print edition shifted the placement of the word also, from immediately after the subject “my brother Jacob” to after the perfect auxiliary verb that immediately follows. The variation here also involves an 1837 change of hath to has, but that is irrelevant to the word order issue. (For further discussion of hath versus has, see infl tional endings in volume 3.) Elsewhere the text has 11 examples of also between the subject and the perfect auxiliary verb have:

None of these other examples of also were shifted in the 1888 LDS edition, which implies that the shift here in 2 Nephi 11:3 was accidental. The 1888 edition was never used as a copy-text for subsequent LDS editions; therefore this error was never perpetuated. For another example of such an accidental shift, see Jacob 7:12; there the 1906 LDS large-print edition accidentally placed the also after the perfect auxiliary.

Of course, also can come after the auxiliary verb have. There are, for instance, 20 examples where the subject is immediately followed by the perfect auxiliary have and then also (as in 2 Nephi 5:12: “and I Nephi had also brought the records”). For an example where also was accidentally (but only momentarily) moved in front of the perfect auxiliary, see Alma 33:10. In all these cases, the critical text will follow the earliest textual sources in determining the placement of also.

Summary: In 2 Nephi 11:3, the word also immediately follows the subject “my brother Jacob” rather than following the perfect auxiliary verb form hath.

Analysis of Textual Variants of the Book of Mormon, Part. 2